Civil War Battleset Manual – 6. Combat





6.1   Normal Combat


Units can attack enemy units in an adjacent hex. To do so,

attempt to move the selected unit on top of the enemy. A

menu will appear in the ‘Armies Summary Data’ zone of the

screen showing the attack options. Four different

intensities of attack are permitted:

Option         Relative Intensity

————–     ——————

Light Skirmish             1

Medium Fight               2

Heavy Attack               3

All-Out Assault            8

Note the ‘All-Out Assault’ is just that, and that it should

be used relatively sparingly, since it will result in heavy

casualties for BOTH sides. If you do not wish to attack at

all, you may cancel the attack by pressing the ‘escape’ key;

however, that will forfeit the unit’s turn for the current

round (the price paid for indecision).

Normally your units will wait for you to issue an attack

order. However, they may occasionally attack on their own

initiative. When this happens, you will receive a message in

the ‘Message Window’ zone, and the attack intensity menu

will appear for you to select the intensity, as described

above. Pressing ‘Esc’ will abort the attack for now, but the

unit will miss its turn.

When units become engaged in combat, they are somewhat

‘locked in place’, and their ability to respond to orders is

reduced. They also are more likely to act on their own

initiative, to renew the combat without any orders to do so.



– 17  –


6.2   Artillery


Artillery (‘A’,’B’,’E’, ‘H’, or ‘N’) units may bombard

visible enemy units some distance away, rather than melee

adjacent units (which they do very poorly anyway). To fire

the cannons, press ‘F’ (for ‘FIRE’) when the artillery unit

is given its turn to move. (If LIMBER option is ON, you will

be prompted to unlimber first)

When you fire artillery, a cursor will appear. Also, the

range of the cannon and the current distance to target is

displayed in the ‘Message Window’. If the cursor is moved

out of range of the cannon, the distance will be highlighted

(to remind you it is out of range). You may move the cursor

using the key pad (as described earlier for unit movement)

to the selected target, then press ‘Enter’. Both the firing

cannon battery and the defending unit are highlighted until

the results are displayed in the ‘Message Window’ and in the

‘Armies Summary’.

When firing artillery, the valid enemy targets only will be

visible during the firing phase. Valid targets must be in

range. Additionally,if the line of sight option is ON, they

must also be in line of sight. ALL visible enemy units will

reappear after firing.

Range of the artillery depends on the same factors as

visibility (elevation and cover). Rifled artillery (‘A’ and

‘E’) is more effective at longer ranges than smoothbore

napoleons (‘N’). Horse artillery (‘H’) is lighter and more

mobile than either and causes less damage.

An ‘EMPLACED GUN’ unit type has been added to allow for

fixed, fortified gun positions. These are treated as very

heavy rifled artillery for the purpose of range and damage.

For a given artillery unit strength, EMPLACED GUNS will do

more damage than any other artillery type. They fire at a

slightly slower rate than other rifled cannons, however.

EMPLACED GUNS can not retreat or otherwise move. They can be

captured if the ‘artillery capture’ option is activated.

Enemy artillery will concentrate more fire on units that

threaten the artillery unit (especially those immediately

adjacent). Damage from canister fire at close range is often

devastating. This makes artillery units tough to overrun, if

they have a chance to fire.

There is a (low) probability of artillery exploding and

killing members of the firing battery.

6.3   Line of Sight


The line of sight option restricts artillery units to fire

only at enemy units not blocked by obstructing terrain

features. Line of sight is considered by tracing an

approximate straight line path from the firing unit to the



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enemy (while keeping to the map hexes). Line of sight is

traced until an obstruction is encountered. If there are no

obstructions, the line of sight is reported as clear.

Otherwise, the artillery unit cannot see the enemy and is

prohibited from firing at that target.

Trees, villages, hills and mountains are considered

obstructions. Army units are NOT considered as obstructions.

A firing unit on a hill may see over ONE obstructed hex with

a forest or village (but not any additional obstructed

hexes). A firing unit on a hill cannot see over a hill or


A firing unit on a mountain may see over TWO obstructed

forest or village hexes. A firing unit on a mountain can see

over ONE hill, but never over another mountain.

The line of sight option can be toggled on or off as desired

in the game parameter menu. Because gunboats will generally

have a more unobstructed view, they have an increased line

of sight ability vs. land based artillery.

6.4  ‘View’ Command to Check Line of Sight


Any unit may check for visible enemy units within line of

sight from the location of the checking unit by typing ‘V’

(for ‘VIEW’). This helps you scout where to set up your

artillery. Visible terrain hexes are shown in reverse color,

as are visible friendly units. Enemy units visible to the

checking unit are shown in normal colors. Enemy units that

are not visible to the checking unit are not displayed until

you press a key.

6.5   Limbering Artillery


A ‘limber’ feature is provided to add realism by requiring

all land-based artillery units (Artillery-Rifled, Napoleon,

and Horse Artillery) to limber before being moved and to

unlimber before being fired. The ‘L’ hot key will toggle

land-based artillery units between limbered and unlimbered

states. A LIMBERED unit is represented on the map by an open

circle (think of it as a “wheel”) and its unit description

has an ‘L’ in front of the name (e.g. LNapoleon). Unlimbered

units are represented by icons as in the regular game.

Changing between limbered/unlimbered requires 5 additional

turns. In addition, units with morale less than 60 require

an additional 5 turns to change.

The feature is activated via a toggle in the ‘Game

Parameters’ and-based artillery units (Artillery-Rifled,

Napoleon, and Horse Artillery) to limber before being moved

and to unlimber before being fired. When the limber feature

is ON, you cannot move unlimbered artillery units nor fire

limbered units.



– 19  –


Limbered artillery is extremely vulnerable to attack, either

melee or artillery fire. Limbered artillery is very

ineffective in melee attack.

If limber option is set ON, all unlimbered artillery unit

types cannot retreat until they are limbered. This means

unlimbered artillery units simply have to take the punishment

while they are under attack.

6.6   Cannonade


Attacks by artillery (cannonades) are a special type of

combat. The outcome depends on the strength of the attacking

unit, the strength of the defending unit, the terrain, and

luck. Given the more uncertain nature of this form of

combat, the outcomes are more variable. However, in the long

run cannonades will cause considerable damage. Cannonades

against units immediately next to the artillery unit will

cause twice the normal damage, as the defenders receive

canister fire at pointblank range. Napoleon units are even

more effective in pointblank attacks due to their use of

canister (grapeshot).

6.7   Cavalry Charge


When cavalry in a CLEAR or ROAD hex attacks an enemy also in

a CLEAR of ROAD hex, the cavalry may ‘charge’ (receive an

attack bonus). The charge option is automatically put into

effect and a special message will announce it. Note that

bridge hexes do not allow charges due to the constricted


6.8   Resolving Combat


In resolving the combat, the attacker goes first, then the

defender. While the attacker is attacking, the defender’s

terrain is used in determining defender casualties. When the

defender returns fire, the attacker’s terrain is used in

determining extent of attacker casualties.

Attacking is risky business, since the attacker must expose

himself, while the defender can take advantage of whatever

cover is available. Thus, attackers will generally take

proportionally more casualties. The results will be

displayed as the battle progresses in the ‘Armies Summary’

area and in the ‘Message Window’. Morale of both armies

under fire will decrease.

6.9   Combat Results


The primary factors affecting combat results are shown




– 20  –

Factor               Relative Effect

—–                ———————

Intensity ………. Major

Unit Strength …… Major

Unit Leadership …. Moderate (major if very low)

Unit Morale …….. Moderate (major if very low)

Terrain ………… Moderate (major for some

(see note)                     conditions, such as cavalry

in swamps)

Unit Type ………. Moderate (major if Artillery or

General units directly

involved in combat)

Adjacent Friendly .. Moderate


LUCK …………… Slight-Moderate

Adjacent Friendly

Unit …………… Slight

NOTE: The terrain occupied by BOTH combatants is considered

in adjusting combat outcome. A unit is at a disadvantage in

swamps, but is at an advantage in forest or hill hexes. A

unit is at a considerable advantage on mountains or in fort

hexes. Cavalry and Artillery units (all types) are

particularly disadvantaged in swamps, and somewhat

disadvantaged in forests. Entrenchment (if any) is also

considered. Entrenched units gain a bonus in addition to any

terrain effect.

6.10  Retreat


If a unit takes particularly heavy casualties, and

leadership and morale are sufficiently low, it will decide

to retreat. When this happens, the unit attempts to move to

one of the 3 hexes furthest from the attacker. The selected

hex must be an unoccupied hex. When a unit attempts to pull

back, a message will appear and the unit will appear in

purple. When an army retreats, its morale suffers, and it

takes a few additional casualties as wounded men are


Since pulling back means exposure to enemy fire, units will

take additional casualties when they decide to retreat.

Units that are cut off and unable to retreat will take

particularly heavy additional losses in the confusion.

Botched retreats will also reduce effectiveness of unit


Sometimes the enemy unit will have to retreat as well, if it

has taken heavy losses. In some instances, one unit in

combat will have to retreat while the victor has not taken

much damage. The victorious unit may advance to pursue the

fleeing unit. Morale increases for the pursuing unit;

leadership may also improve, as the commander hones his


The human attacker is given the option to pursue if

reliability setting is normal or better (instead of

automatically pursuing).



– 21  –

6.11 Killed Leaders


Occasionally, the unit commander himself will be killed in

the combat. When this happens, a message to that effect will

appear in the ‘Message Window’. The leadership ability of

the new leader will be displayed. It will usually (but not

always) be lower than the deceased commander.

6.12 Eliminated Units


Occasionally units will be eliminated from the battle. This

is announced in the message window and an “death’s head”

icon will appear in the hex the eliminated unit occupied.

When this happens, the opponent is awarded additional

victory points (as established in the scoring factors) for

eliminating the unit.

If one side is completely annihilated by having ALL of its

units eliminated, the game will end. A bonus of 250 points

is awards to the victor in this case.

6.13 Capturing Artillery


In the case of eliminated artillery, some portion of the

eliminated unit may be captured by the attacker. This will

occur if: (a) The “artillery capture” option is ON (b) There

is an unused unit number for the attacking side for the new

artillery unit that will be formed. (c) The attacker chooses

to pursue into the hex where the eliminated unit had been.

The option to capture occurs only when the artillery unit is

eliminated. Otherwise, the unit is permanently removed from

the remainder of the game.

6.14 End of Game


The game ends when time expires or one side is annihilated. The

side controlling the objective at the end gets a bonus as

explained earlier.

When time expires, you are given an option to allow you continue

to play 10 more turns even though the scenario has ended. The

side controlling the objective gets the end-game bonus each time

this option is chosen, even though the game continues. Scenarios

may be extended indefinitely using this option.

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