6.1 Normal Combat
Units can attack enemy units in an adjacent hex. To do so,
attempt to move the selected unit on top of the enemy. A
menu will appear in the ‘Armies Summary Data’ zone of the
screen showing the attack options. Four different
intensities of attack are permitted:
Option Relative Intensity
Light Skirmish 1
Medium Fight 2
Heavy Attack 3
All-Out Assault 8
Note the ‘All-Out Assault’ is just that, and that it should
be used relatively sparingly, since it will result in heavy
casualties for BOTH sides. If you do not wish to attack at
all, you may cancel the attack by pressing the ‘escape’ key;
however, that will forfeit the unit’s turn for the current
round (the price paid for indecision).
Normally your units will wait for you to issue an attack
order. However, they may occasionally attack on their own
initiative. When this happens, you will receive a message in
the ‘Message Window’ zone, and the attack intensity menu
will appear for you to select the intensity, as described
above. Pressing ‘Esc’ will abort the attack for now, but the
unit will miss its turn.
When units become engaged in combat, they are somewhat
‘locked in place’, and their ability to respond to orders is
reduced. They also are more likely to act on their own
initiative, to renew the combat without any orders to do so.
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Artillery (‘A’,’B’,’E’, ‘H’, or ‘N’) units may bombard
visible enemy units some distance away, rather than melee
adjacent units (which they do very poorly anyway). To fire
the cannons, press ‘F’ (for ‘FIRE’) when the artillery unit
is given its turn to move. (If LIMBER option is ON, you will
be prompted to unlimber first)
When you fire artillery, a cursor will appear. Also, the
range of the cannon and the current distance to target is
displayed in the ‘Message Window’. If the cursor is moved
out of range of the cannon, the distance will be highlighted
(to remind you it is out of range). You may move the cursor
using the key pad (as described earlier for unit movement)
to the selected target, then press ‘Enter’. Both the firing
cannon battery and the defending unit are highlighted until
the results are displayed in the ‘Message Window’ and in the
When firing artillery, the valid enemy targets only will be
visible during the firing phase. Valid targets must be in
range. Additionally,if the line of sight option is ON, they
must also be in line of sight. ALL visible enemy units will
reappear after firing.
Range of the artillery depends on the same factors as
visibility (elevation and cover). Rifled artillery (‘A’ and
‘E’) is more effective at longer ranges than smoothbore
napoleons (‘N’). Horse artillery (‘H’) is lighter and more
mobile than either and causes less damage.
An ‘EMPLACED GUN’ unit type has been added to allow for
fixed, fortified gun positions. These are treated as very
heavy rifled artillery for the purpose of range and damage.
For a given artillery unit strength, EMPLACED GUNS will do
more damage than any other artillery type. They fire at a
slightly slower rate than other rifled cannons, however.
EMPLACED GUNS can not retreat or otherwise move. They can be
captured if the ‘artillery capture’ option is activated.
Enemy artillery will concentrate more fire on units that
threaten the artillery unit (especially those immediately
adjacent). Damage from canister fire at close range is often
devastating. This makes artillery units tough to overrun, if
they have a chance to fire.
There is a (low) probability of artillery exploding and
killing members of the firing battery.
6.3 Line of Sight
The line of sight option restricts artillery units to fire
only at enemy units not blocked by obstructing terrain
features. Line of sight is considered by tracing an
approximate straight line path from the firing unit to the
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enemy (while keeping to the map hexes). Line of sight is
traced until an obstruction is encountered. If there are no
obstructions, the line of sight is reported as clear.
Otherwise, the artillery unit cannot see the enemy and is
prohibited from firing at that target.
Trees, villages, hills and mountains are considered
obstructions. Army units are NOT considered as obstructions.
A firing unit on a hill may see over ONE obstructed hex with
a forest or village (but not any additional obstructed
hexes). A firing unit on a hill cannot see over a hill or
A firing unit on a mountain may see over TWO obstructed
forest or village hexes. A firing unit on a mountain can see
over ONE hill, but never over another mountain.
The line of sight option can be toggled on or off as desired
in the game parameter menu. Because gunboats will generally
have a more unobstructed view, they have an increased line
of sight ability vs. land based artillery.
6.4 ‘View’ Command to Check Line of Sight
Any unit may check for visible enemy units within line of
sight from the location of the checking unit by typing ‘V’
(for ‘VIEW’). This helps you scout where to set up your
artillery. Visible terrain hexes are shown in reverse color,
as are visible friendly units. Enemy units visible to the
checking unit are shown in normal colors. Enemy units that
are not visible to the checking unit are not displayed until
you press a key.
6.5 Limbering Artillery
A ‘limber’ feature is provided to add realism by requiring
all land-based artillery units (Artillery-Rifled, Napoleon,
and Horse Artillery) to limber before being moved and to
unlimber before being fired. The ‘L’ hot key will toggle
land-based artillery units between limbered and unlimbered
states. A LIMBERED unit is represented on the map by an open
circle (think of it as a “wheel”) and its unit description
has an ‘L’ in front of the name (e.g. LNapoleon). Unlimbered
units are represented by icons as in the regular game.
Changing between limbered/unlimbered requires 5 additional
turns. In addition, units with morale less than 60 require
an additional 5 turns to change.
The feature is activated via a toggle in the ‘Game
Parameters’ and-based artillery units (Artillery-Rifled,
Napoleon, and Horse Artillery) to limber before being moved
and to unlimber before being fired. When the limber feature
is ON, you cannot move unlimbered artillery units nor fire
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Limbered artillery is extremely vulnerable to attack, either
melee or artillery fire. Limbered artillery is very
ineffective in melee attack.
If limber option is set ON, all unlimbered artillery unit
types cannot retreat until they are limbered. This means
unlimbered artillery units simply have to take the punishment
while they are under attack.
Attacks by artillery (cannonades) are a special type of
combat. The outcome depends on the strength of the attacking
unit, the strength of the defending unit, the terrain, and
luck. Given the more uncertain nature of this form of
combat, the outcomes are more variable. However, in the long
run cannonades will cause considerable damage. Cannonades
against units immediately next to the artillery unit will
cause twice the normal damage, as the defenders receive
canister fire at pointblank range. Napoleon units are even
more effective in pointblank attacks due to their use of
6.7 Cavalry Charge
When cavalry in a CLEAR or ROAD hex attacks an enemy also in
a CLEAR of ROAD hex, the cavalry may ‘charge’ (receive an
attack bonus). The charge option is automatically put into
effect and a special message will announce it. Note that
bridge hexes do not allow charges due to the constricted
6.8 Resolving Combat
In resolving the combat, the attacker goes first, then the
defender. While the attacker is attacking, the defender’s
terrain is used in determining defender casualties. When the
defender returns fire, the attacker’s terrain is used in
determining extent of attacker casualties.
Attacking is risky business, since the attacker must expose
himself, while the defender can take advantage of whatever
cover is available. Thus, attackers will generally take
proportionally more casualties. The results will be
displayed as the battle progresses in the ‘Armies Summary’
area and in the ‘Message Window’. Morale of both armies
under fire will decrease.
6.9 Combat Results
The primary factors affecting combat results are shown
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Factor Relative Effect
Intensity ………. Major
Unit Strength …… Major
Unit Leadership …. Moderate (major if very low)
Unit Morale …….. Moderate (major if very low)
Terrain ………… Moderate (major for some
(see note) conditions, such as cavalry
Unit Type ………. Moderate (major if Artillery or
General units directly
involved in combat)
Adjacent Friendly .. Moderate
LUCK …………… Slight-Moderate
Unit …………… Slight
NOTE: The terrain occupied by BOTH combatants is considered
in adjusting combat outcome. A unit is at a disadvantage in
swamps, but is at an advantage in forest or hill hexes. A
unit is at a considerable advantage on mountains or in fort
hexes. Cavalry and Artillery units (all types) are
particularly disadvantaged in swamps, and somewhat
disadvantaged in forests. Entrenchment (if any) is also
considered. Entrenched units gain a bonus in addition to any
If a unit takes particularly heavy casualties, and
leadership and morale are sufficiently low, it will decide
to retreat. When this happens, the unit attempts to move to
one of the 3 hexes furthest from the attacker. The selected
hex must be an unoccupied hex. When a unit attempts to pull
back, a message will appear and the unit will appear in
purple. When an army retreats, its morale suffers, and it
takes a few additional casualties as wounded men are
Since pulling back means exposure to enemy fire, units will
take additional casualties when they decide to retreat.
Units that are cut off and unable to retreat will take
particularly heavy additional losses in the confusion.
Botched retreats will also reduce effectiveness of unit
Sometimes the enemy unit will have to retreat as well, if it
has taken heavy losses. In some instances, one unit in
combat will have to retreat while the victor has not taken
much damage. The victorious unit may advance to pursue the
fleeing unit. Morale increases for the pursuing unit;
leadership may also improve, as the commander hones his
The human attacker is given the option to pursue if
reliability setting is normal or better (instead of
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6.11 Killed Leaders
Occasionally, the unit commander himself will be killed in
the combat. When this happens, a message to that effect will
appear in the ‘Message Window’. The leadership ability of
the new leader will be displayed. It will usually (but not
always) be lower than the deceased commander.
6.12 Eliminated Units
Occasionally units will be eliminated from the battle. This
is announced in the message window and an “death’s head”
icon will appear in the hex the eliminated unit occupied.
When this happens, the opponent is awarded additional
victory points (as established in the scoring factors) for
eliminating the unit.
If one side is completely annihilated by having ALL of its
units eliminated, the game will end. A bonus of 250 points
is awards to the victor in this case.
6.13 Capturing Artillery
In the case of eliminated artillery, some portion of the
eliminated unit may be captured by the attacker. This will
occur if: (a) The “artillery capture” option is ON (b) There
is an unused unit number for the attacking side for the new
artillery unit that will be formed. (c) The attacker chooses
to pursue into the hex where the eliminated unit had been.
The option to capture occurs only when the artillery unit is
eliminated. Otherwise, the unit is permanently removed from
the remainder of the game.
6.14 End of Game
The game ends when time expires or one side is annihilated. The
side controlling the objective at the end gets a bonus as
When time expires, you are given an option to allow you continue
to play 10 more turns even though the scenario has ended. The
side controlling the objective gets the end-game bonus each time
this option is chosen, even though the game continues. Scenarios
may be extended indefinitely using this option.